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Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) comes in two forms, Electrocorticography (ECoG) and Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG).

Electrocorticography (ECoG) is a type of electrophysiological monitoring that uses electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex. In contrast, conventional electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes monitor this activity from outside the skull. ECoG may be performed either in the operating room during surgery (intraoperative ECoG) or outside of surgery (extraoperative ECoG). Because a craniotomy (a surgical incision into the skull) is required to implant the electrode grid, ECoG is an invasive procedure.

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is the practice of recording electroencephalographic signals via depth electrodes (electrodes surgically implanted into the brain tissue).